虚云老和尚出家的因缘----宣化上人开示(中英双语版)

发表于 讨论求助 2019-07-18 16:06:22

           虚云老和尚出家的因缘

The Story of Venerable Master Hsu Yun's Leaving the Home-life

 

志不退,愿不退,行不退,一心一意向前精进。

Never retreat from your resolve, from your vows, and from your practice. Advance with single-minded vigor.


虚老是湖南省湘乡人氏,俗姓萧,父玉堂公,曾任福建省泉州府知府之职,为官清廉,爱民如子。年逾四十,膝下无子,夫妇到城外观音古寺求子。心诚则有感应,回府之后,夫人果然怀孕。十月期满,夫妇同梦一位老者,长须青袍,头顶观音,跨虎而来。惊醒,胎儿降生,乃是一肉团(八地菩萨,才有此境界),母惊吓而气绝。

 

The Venerable Master Hsu Yun (Empty Cloud) was born to the Xiao family and was a native of Xiang County of Hunan Province in China. His father, the Elder Yutang, was an incorruptible magistrate of Quan Prefecture in Fujian province who loved the people as if they were his own children. At the age of forty, he was still childless. One day, he and his wife went to the ancient Guanyin Temple outside of town to pray for a son. Their sincerity inspired a response; soon after their return to the prefecture, Mrs. Xiao conceived a child. When the pregnancy reached full term, one night both husband and wife dreamed of a long-bearded old man, wearing a dark-green robe and bearing an image of Guanyin Bodhisattva on his head, who came riding astride a tiger. Startled awake, the woman delivered a child who emerged in a bag of flesh. (This is the state of Bodhisattvas at the eighth stage or above). Frightened by the uncanny event, the woman passed away.

 

翌日,来了一位卖药的老翁,用刀将肉团剖开,内里有一男婴,遂由庶母抚育。虚老因为有善根,不欢喜读儒家的书籍,对功名视为浮云,可是对佛经颇有兴趣,所以在年少就萌起出家修道的念头。有一次,逃到福州鼓山拟出家,被家人找回。其父遣之回湖南老家去,请二叔严加管教,杜绝其出家之念。

 

The following day an old peddler of medicines passed by and cut open the flesh-bag to reveal a baby boy inside. The child was raised by his stepmother. Endowed with keen faculties, the boy considered honor and position to be meaningless. Rather than delighting in the Confucian classics, he had a consuming interest in studying the Buddhist Sutras, and at an early age, he conceived the idea of leaving the home-life to cultivate the Way. Once, he tried escaping to Gu Mountain in Fu Prefecture to become a monk, but his family dragged him back home. His father ordered him to return to their old home in Hunan, and told his uncle to keep a close watch over him and to drive the idea of leaving home out of his mind.

 

虚老是独生子,三叔很早就往生,没有儿子,所以就成为“一支两不绝”的继承人。按照当时的风俗,可以娶两个太太,一个是父母的媳妇,一个是叔父的媳妇,使两支都有后代,可以延续香烟。这是一举两得的事,一般人求之不得,可是虚老认为是苦恼事。

 

The Venerable Master Hsu Yun was the only child in the family. His third uncle had passed away long ago, leaving no descendants. Thus he became the heir of two branches of the family. By social custom, he was entitled to marry two wives; one to be the daughter-in-law of his parents, and the other to be the daughter-in-law of his uncle. In this way, both branches could have heirs, and both family lines could continue. To get "two birds with one stone" was a situation most men might seek but never find, but to Venerable Master Hsu Yun, it only meant suffering and affliction.

   

为传宗接代的使命,奉父叔之命,在十八岁时,和田氏、谭氏二女,同时举行结婚仪式。这二女都是名门闺秀,深明大义。结婚之夜,虚老向二女约法三章,有夫妻之名,无夫妻之实,保持童真之体,三人同居,互不侵犯,相安无事。

 

In order to preserve the family lineage, he obeyed his father and uncle, and, at age eighteen, he married Miss Tan and Miss Tian in a double wedding. Both women were well-bred daughters of noble families, and both had deep understanding of ethical conduct. On the night of their wedding, the Venerable Master Hsu Yun entered into a solemn oath with the two young women, promising that their marriage was to be in name only, and that they would never consummate their troth. Maintaining their virginity, the three of them lived together without sharing husband-wife relations.


次年,虚老决心出家修道,征求二女同意(此二女后来亦出家为尼),偷偷离开温暖的家,来到福州鼓山涌泉寺,礼妙莲长老为师,名演彻,号德清。虚老深恐被家人再找到,所以在深山岩下修苦行,饥时吃松子和草叶,渴时喝山涧之溪水。这种苦行,不是一般人所能修持的,所谓:

 

穿人所不能穿,

吃人所不能吃,

忍人所不能忍,

受人所不能受。


The following year, the Venerable Master decided to leave the home-life and cultivate the Way. But first he obtained the permission of his two wives, who later both left home to become nuns. He then secretly stole away from his comfortable home and travelled to Yongquan ("Bubbling Spring") Monastery on Gu Mountain in Fu Prefecture to become the disciple of Elder Master Miaolian ("Wonderful Lotus"), who gave him the names Yence ("Thorough Expression"), and Deqing ("Virtuous and Pure"). Fearing that his family might find him again, Venerable Master Hsu Yun went off to the remote mountain wilds to live as an ascetic. When hungry, he ate pine nuts and wild plants; when thirsty, he drank mountain spring water. The bitter conditions were certainly beyond the tolerance of ordinary people, but he was one who could:

 

Wear what others cannot wear;

Eat what others cannot eat;

Endure what others cannot endure; and,

Tolerate what others cannot tolerate.

 

面临种种考验,他却受之泰然,不但不觉得痛苦,反而感觉快乐。

 

He faced numerous tests, but he passed each one with a peaceful, tolerant attitude. Instead of feeling miserable, he felt very happy.

  

三年之后,他为了亲近善知识,为了研究佛法,于是到处参方。他跋山涉水,历尽艰辛,凡有高僧大德所在之处,无论是千山万水,也挡不住他求道为法的心。在参方期间,处处受到歧视,可是虚老本着坚忍不拔的意志,为求法而忘己,虽然经过多次的挫折,也不灰心,不变初衷,依然勇猛向前,精进学习。虚老这种精神,实在令人钦佩,足以为人效法。

 

Three years later, in order to draw near to good and wise advisors and to investigate the Buddhadharma, he embarked on a study-tour. Crossing mountains and fording streams, he suffered untold hardships. As long as it was a place where eminent, virtuous monks resided, all the mountains and rivers couldn't impede him from going there to seek the Way and dedicate himself to the Dharma.He met prejudice and troubles at every turn of the road, but he stood firm in his indefatigable resolve and simply forgot himself in his quest for the Dharma. Despite continual setbacks, he never gave up, nor lost sight of his initial purpose. Instead, he simply forged ahead and studied with even more vigor. This spirit inspired others' respect and caused many people to emulate him.

 

后来为报母恩,他发心三步一拜,从普陀山拜向五台山。经过三年的时间,完成志愿,功德圆满。以下叙述虚老在三步一拜时,所发生的感应道交的小故事。


Later on, he made a vow to undertake a pilgrimage in which he would bow to the ground once every three steps, in order to repay the kindness of his mother. His route took him from Potala Mountain to Five Peaks Mountain, and he made prostrations all the way. Three years later he fulfilled his vow, and the merit and virtue of the pilgrimage was completed. The following is a brief account of one of the responses the Venerable Master Hsu Yun experienced in the course of his pilgrimage.

 

虚老拜到黄河岸的时候,正逢天降大雪,三天三夜下得不停。他住在小草棚中,又饥又寒,已经失去身体的知觉,不省人事。醒来时,发现有一个乞丐为他做饭,他吃了之后,恢复元气,于是继续朝拜五台山。后来到五台山,才知道这个乞丐原来是文殊菩萨的化身。

 

He had bowed to the banks of the Yellow River, when a huge snow-storm blew up, dropping powdery snow for three days and nights without cease. The Master stayed in a tiny hut and suffered from hunger and cold. Finally he lost consciousness and fainted. When he revived, he saw a beggar sitting nearby, fixing him food. After eating the meal, he recovered his strength and continued to bow towards Five Peaks Mountain. Upon his arrival, he discovered that the beggar had been none other than a transformation body of Manjushri Bodhisattva.

  

虚老在九华山住茅棚的时候,听说扬州高旻寺打八个禅七,就想去参加。他从九华山沿江而行,当时正逢大雨季节,江水泛滥,水漫路面,他不慎失足,掉落水中,漂流二十四小时之久,流到采石矶附近时,被打鱼的网打上来。这个时候,虚老已经奄奄一息。渔夫通知附近的宝积寺,将他抬回寺中,于是被救活,可是他七孔流血,病况十分严重。休息数日后,他为法忘躯,将生死置于度外,还是不变初衷,仍然到高旻寺参加禅七。

 

While the Elder Master Hsu Yun was living as a hermit on Jiuhua ("Nine Flowers") Mountain, news came to him that Gaomin Monastery in Yang Zhou Province was preparing to host an eight-week Chan meditation retreat, and he decided to participate. He walked down from Jiuhua Mountain, steering his course by the river-bank. It was the rainy season, and at that time the river was flooded and had overflowed its banks on the road ahead of him. Suddenly the Master lost his footing on the treacherous path and fell into the river, where he bobbed and floated for twenty-four hours. The current carried him downstream near Cai Jetty, where he was caught by a fisherman's net. By that time the Venerable Master was nearly drowned. The fisherman pulled him up, then informed the nearby temple. Monks from Baoji ("Jewel Cluster") Monastery carried the Master back to the temple, where they revived him. The Venerable Master was bleeding from seven orifices, and was in critical condition, but he would not give up his original intent. After resting for a few days, the Master set aside his personal welfare for the sake of the Dharma, and, putting life and death out of his mind, he went on to Gaomin Monastery to join the Chan retreat.

 

高旻寺规矩非常严格,执行非常认真,如果有犯规矩的,就打香板,毫不客气。当时住持月朗禅师,请他代职,虚老不答应,遂按规矩打香板。虚老接受不语,但经责打之后,他的病势加重,血流不止,病况危殆。

 

According to Gaomin Monastery's extremely strict regulations and their high standards of practice, anybody who broke the rules earned a beating with the incense-board (discipline-rod); there was no recourse to courtesy at all. The acting abbot, Chan Master Yue Lang ("Moon Radiance"), had requested the Venerable Hsu Yun to substitute for him in his position as official administrator. The Venerable Master declined the request, and thereby, according to the rules of the monastery, deserved a beating. He took his punishment without complaint. But after the beating, his illness grew worse; he bled non-stop from every orifice and his condition grew nearly fatal.

 

有人在想:“虚老这么样用功修道,为什么护法神不护持?还让他掉在水里?”其实,还是护法神在护持,不然的话,渔夫怎么会用网把他打上来?所以在冥冥之中,都有佑护。

 

Someone may be wondering, "Since Venerable Hsu Yun was a sincere and diligent cultivator, why did the Dharma-protecting spirits fail to protect him, and let him fall into the river like that?" In fact, the spirits were still protecting him. If not, then how could he have been saved in the fisherman's net? Thus, we can know that he was protected invisibly at all times by the Dharma-protecting spirits.

 

这也是生死的考验,看他遭受这次的灾难,有什么感想?是不是生了退道心?“啊!我修行这么多年,又读经,又拜忏,又燃指,又住茅棚,种种的苦行,我都认真去修,为什么一点感应也没有?算了吧!我不修行了,我要还俗,过五欲的生活。”如果这样一想,就不会做禅宗五宗的祖师了。


The entire episode was a life and death test to reveal his thoughts and feelings upon meeting such a disaster. The test determined whether or not he would retreat from his resolve for the Way. Would he entertain thoughts such as these: "Ha! I've been cultivating for so many years, reading Sutras, bowing repentances, burning a finger, living as a hermit, practicing all kinds of austerities, and my cultivation has been earnest, so why haven't I had the least response? Forget it! I'm giving up! I'm not going to cultivate any longer! I'm going to return to lay-life and indulge the five desires!" If he'd allowed such thoughts to occur, then he could never have become the Patriarch of the Five Sects of the Chan School.


高旻寺的规矩最认真,彼此不准讲话,就是同住之人,也互相不知姓名。虚老在禅堂里很守规矩,虽然病得很厉害,仍然只字不提,也不说出落水被救的事,只是一心一意参禅。二十天后,病况好转,此乃蒙佛菩萨之加被矣!

  

The Venerable Hsu Yun obeyed the rules closely in the meditation hall, especially since Gaomin Monastery was noted for the extreme severity of its regulations. Nobody was allowed to hold conversations, and often it was the case that cultivators living side by side in the monastery would not even know each other's name. Venerable Hsu Yun was seriously ill, but did not mention the fact to anyone, nor did he tell the story about falling into the river. He only investigated Chan with a single-minded concentration. Twenty days passed, and his sickness abated, thanks to the aid bestowed upon him by the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.

 

有一天,采石矶宝积寺住持德岸法师,来到高旻寺,发现虚老在凳上端然正坐,容光焕发,大为惊悦,于是乎将虚老落水被救的事,向大众宣布。众人皆钦叹不已,为成就虚老用功修行,于是禅堂内职,不令虚老轮值。至此,虚老更能一心参禅,直至一念不生的境地。

 

One day, the Venerable Master De An ("Virtue Shore"), the Abbot of Baoji Monastery at Cai Jetty, happened by the retreat at Gaomin, and he encountered the Venerable Hsu Yun, who was sitting upright and properly on the meditation bench, his face radiant and beaming. The Abbot De An was startled, and told the entire assembly about the incident of Venerable Master Hsu Yun's fall into the river and his rescue. After hearing the story the meditators expressed their unceasing admiration, and in order to allow Venerable Master Hsu Yun to cultivate successfully, they excused him from the rotation of administrative duties. Thus he was able to concentrate on his meditation single-mindedly, until he penetrated to a state of "no further thoughts arising."

 

第八个七的第三天晚上,开静时,当值斟开水,不慎将开水溅在虚老手上,于是手中茶杯落地,杯碎之声,虚老闻而开悟(明朝时紫柏禅师闻碗碎声而开悟),乃说偈曰:

 

杯子扑落地,

响声明沥沥;

虚空粉碎也,

狂心当下歇。

 

On the third night of the eighth week, at the end of an hour of meditation, an attendant brought hot water around to serve to the sitters. As he poured a cup of water for the Venerable Master, he carelessly spilled some of the boiling water on the Master's hand. The teacup fell to the floor and shattered, and the Venerable Master Hsu Yun became enlightened upon hearing the sound of the cup shattering. (A similar event happened to Venerable Master Zibuo, "Purple Cedar," a Chan Master of the Ming Dynasty, who became enlightened at the sound of a shattering bowl). Venerable Master Hsu Yun spoke a verse on the spot:

 

Smashing with a clear, echoing sound,

The teacup fell and hit the ground.

Shattering empty space,

The mad mind finally stops right there.

   

又说:

 

烫着手,打碎杯,

家破人亡语难开;

春到花香处处秀,

山河大地是如来。


And then he said another verse:

 

My hand was scalded, the cup shattered.

The family's broken and relatives are gone

Words are hard to find.

Spring's come now; buds are in bloom,

Full and sweet in every place.

Mountains, rivers, and the earth itself

Are just the Thus Come One.

 

开悟之后,虚老离开高旻寺,更努力精进,云游四方,勤访善知识。后来到云南,重修鸡足山的寺院,因为经费不足,所以到南洋去募款。搭船到新加坡时,在船上患病。下船后,因为没有护照,英国人认为是传染病,把他送到传染病院;这也就是在该处等死的意思。后来才被送到极乐寺闭关,不久病渐得愈。后又到泰国募款,在某寺挂单,入定九天,似死而非死,惊动泰京(曼谷),上自国王、大臣,下至老百姓,都来皈依虚老。信徒供养,布施巨金,都汇回云南,做为建寺之需。

 

After his enlightenment, he left Gaomin Monastery and cultivated even more vigorously than before, travelling extensively to look for and pay his respects to good and wise teachers. His travels carried him finally to Yunnan Province, where he rebuilt the monasteries on Jizu ("Chicken Foot") Mountain. Because his resources were insufficient, he journeyed on to Southeast Asia to solicit donations. The Venerable Master fell ill on the boat to Singapore, and, once ashore, the English inspectors interrogated him because he did not have a passport. They suspected that his illness was contagious and confined him in an isolation ward, where he was virtually left to die. However, later on he was sent to Jile ("Utmost Happiness") Monastery, where he went into seclusion, and, before long, regained his health. Travelling on to Thailand to make his almsrounds, he stayed at a certain monastery and entered samadhi for nine days. His external appearance was lifeless, but in fact he was not dead. All Buddhists in Bangkok, the national capital, were startled by the news of his meditation skill; and the populace, from the King and his courtiers on down to the ordinary citizens, flocked to take refuge with the Venerable Hsu Yun. The offerings made by these faithful disciples were gathered into a lump sum and sent back to Yunnan, China, to finance the reconstruction of the monasteries.


一九四七年春,南华寺传戒,我才和虚老第一次见面。现在还记得,传完戒之后,虚老受了点刺激,喉咙发炎,不能说话,因此当时不便详问。经过医生的治疗,他才开始慢慢痊愈。

 

In the spring of 1947, when Nanhua ("Southern China") Monastery held a precept ordination, I personally met the Venerable Master for the first time. I still remember the occasion: After the precepts had been transmitted, the Venerable Master Hsu Yun was stricken with a throat infection and lost his voice, so it was an inopportune time to hold a conversation. He was treated by the doctor and recovered slowly.

 

虚老一生,所受困苦艰难,真是一言难尽!我相信没有任何人能够经得起这种的折磨。他老人家在这一世纪中,自度度他,自利利他,出神入化、祥瑞之事,不胜枚举。今天简单向各位介绍虚老一生的事迹,希望各位学习他老人家忍苦耐劳的精神。

 

The troubles and miseries endured by the Venerable Master during his entire life were such that they could never be fully described in just a few sentences. I know beyond a doubt that few persons could have withstood the hardships and pressures that he endured. As he took both himself and others across, he benefitted both himself and others. The many miracles and spiritual marvels that he experienced throughout the century of his life span are too many to relate. I've given you only a brief sketch of his life, and I hope that in the future you will imitate the elder monk's untiring forbearance.

 

现在的出家人,坐了几天的禅,就想有感应,就想开悟得大智慧,这未免贪心太大了。虚老一生之中,舍死忘生,才把本来面目认识清楚;我们受了什么苦?做了什么功德?就妄想开悟,简直是幼稚的想法。

 

Left-home people of this day and age sit and meditate for a brief time and expect a response, or hope to get enlightened, and gain great wisdom. This is simply unrestrained greed. It took the Venerable Master Hsu Yun a lifetime of work to "see his original face," up to the point of forgetting all concern with life and death. What suffering have we undergone? What merit and virtue have we created? Yet we can still fantasize about getting enlightened! This is simply too childish!

 

修道人,要志不退,愿不退,行不退,一心一意向前精进,所谓“百尺竿头,更进一步。”不管成就如何,只要发菩提心,努力修行,不要有所企图,想得什么五眼六通、神通妙用,这不是修行究竟的成果。切记!不要一天到晚,想神通,想开悟,那是修道的绊脚石。

 

Cultivators of the Way must never retreat from their resolve, from their vows, and from their practice. They must advance with single-minded vigor, so that "at the top of the hundred-foot pole, they take one more step." It does not matter what accomplishment you have. What counts is that you bring forth a great resolve for Bodhi, and work hard at your cultivation. Don't hanker after the Five Spiritual Eyes and Six Spiritual Penetrations, or the wonderful functioning of spiritual powers. They are not the ultimate reward of cultivation. Remember this well! Don't be thinking about gaining psychic powers and enlightenment from morning to night. Such thoughts are truly the stumbling block of cultivation!

 

一九八一年禅七 七月十六日至廿三日

开示于万佛圣城万佛殿


A talk given during a Chan Session from July 16-23, 1981 The Hall of Ten Thousand Buddhas, The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas

         摘自法界佛教总会



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